Definition of Parent Education
Parent education is a process for helping parents to understand children’s development, needs and
uniqueness, and their own parental roles and responsibilities by offering strategies, tools, and
insight for observing, interpreting, and responding to children’s behaviors in order to maximize
positive outcomes for both children and families.
Types of Parent Education Programs
Primary: Programs offered to the general population that focus on enhancing parenting knowledge
and skills on a wide range of universal topics. Parents participating in these programs are typically
not court involved.
Secondary: Programs offered to parents and/or children who may be at risk of abuse or neglect and
that focus on enhancing parenting knowledge and skills in specific areas known to be associated
with risk and that include building self-awareness about the parenting approaches and behaviors that
have the potential for putting children at risk. Parents participating in these programs may or may
not have court involvement.
Tertiary: Programs offered to parents and/or children who have experienced abuse or neglect and
that not only enhance parenting knowledge and skills but foster an understanding of how parents'
early experiences and belief systems influence their parenting. Tertiary programs empower parents
to use their new knowledge and insight to change their behavior. Parents participating in these
programs are typically, though not always, court involved.
General Characteristics of Effective Parent Education Programs
Included in this toolkit is a chart that compares the components of effective primary, secondary, and
tertiary parent education programs and their unique characteristics. Regardless of the type or level
of the program, however, effective programs include the following:
• Clearly defined program goals, objectives and measurable outcomes;
• A focus on using family strengths to increase parental competence;
• Responsiveness to parents’ learning needs, developmental, educational and language levels
and parents’ attitude toward parent education;
• Identification of the target population best served (e.g., substance abuse, incarceration), and,
if serving court ordered clients, how the curriculum addresses their unique needs;
• Trained, knowledgeable, compassionate and engaging staff to provide parent education;
• Utilization of a curriculum that includes the following:
(1) enhances one or more of the protective factors (parental resilience, knowledge of
parenting and child development, nurturing and attachment, concrete supports in times
of need, social connections, children’s social and emotional competence);
(2) is culturally responsive to families’ needs;
(3) provides an opportunity for parents to practice what they learn;
• Utilization of an evaluation component to assess the effectiveness of the program to achieve
outcomes for parents identified, preferably a pre and post test to measure change;
• Completion of the total program in order to be effective; and
• Follow-up support and reinforcement of learning with families.
Finding the Right Fit for Parents to Meet their Needs
The most effective parent education program is one that is responsive to the specific needs of the
parent. We encourage each court district and local community to determine the needs of the
parenting stakeholders in their jurisdiction. For a specific family, the attached Characteristics of
Effective Parent Education document can help you choose the right fit based on the needs of the
parents, the risk factors present, and the components of the program.
Educating Parents About Education
In too many classrooms in Cameroon, parents are often viewed as the adversaries of teachers. While this isn't true for every school community, even one is too many. The parent-teacher relationship is just one of the many factors that complicate our educational system, and it's a prime example. Why is this relationship such a variable? The parent's personal experience with education probably tops the list, but how the culture of the school accepts and relates to parents is a close second. Of course, every parent's number one concern will be: "Is my child getting a proper education to compete and thrive in our world?"
In the past, communication has always been a key factor in bringing teachers and parents together. Today, we might add transparency as a key factor in parents' understanding of what goes on at school.
The one thing most Americans have in common is an experience with our education system. As a result, almost everyone has an opinion on what is right and, even often more vocalized, what is wrong with the system.
What complicates these views further is the fact that most of us were educated by teachers who employed 20th century pedagogy and methodology, which means that the 20th century is the basis of our educational experience. Since we are now almost halfway through the second decade of the 21st century, we need to get everyone up to speed. This requires educating parents about the education of their children. For example:
We are struggling today to bring teachers up to speed with all of the effects that result from our living in a technology-driven society. It has had a profound effect on many educators' pedagogy, methodology, and education philosophy. Education is a conservative institution that is slow to change, but make no mistake -- changes are occurring. As big of a struggle as it may be to affect the mindset of educators while they model and share those changes with their students, we must recognize that parents are left almost entirely out of the process.
If we don't want an adversarial relationship with parents, we need to educate them about the education of their children. Technology provides a number of methods for keeping parents informed. Of course, the most effective way of all is a face-to-face meeting. In the past, Parents Night or Back to School Night was the standard way of informing parents about the teachers' expectations. It was one night set aside for parents to check out the mean teacher they had heard so much about at dinner. We probably need to make that a more collaborative process. These nights could be more effective if we allowed parents to pose sessions on topics that they had an interest in. Teachers could pose topics that they thought parents should be aware of. Back to School Night could be just that -- a night to learn about topics relevant to education in the 21st century. Sessions could be a hybrid form of the edcamp model.
A class website could be most helpful in creating transparency. Parents could access it at any time to see what is currently going on in class. Of course, this impacts a teacher as another set of things to do, so we should expect a great deal of support from the district in order for teachers to accomplish this. Effective websites often result in parent support, as well as an appreciation for seeing their child's work being modeled online. Kids respond differently as well, since they now have a voice and an audience that includes their parents.
There are apps that allow teachers to communicate via text to parents without revealing the phone numbers of the teacher or parent. Communication of both good and bad news can happen instantaneously in a medium that many people are familiar with. A text doesn't take two days to go through the mail to be possibly swiped from the mailbox by a mail-notice-savvy student.
Teachers can preserve students' work in digital files or portfolios. These can be instantly shared with parents. Grades on a report card are only subjective promises of potential, while the portfolio shows the actual work, which is proof of achievement and hopefully an example of mastery.
Today, educators are doing many things that are not in the education experiences of parents or teachers. We can't expect parents to understand these new dynamics of education if they aren't taught about them. Age may produce wisdom, but relevance needs to be worked on every day. In addition to the load that teachers already carry, parent education needs to somehow become a priority. If we want our kids' education to last, they will need models that both teachers and parents can provide. And we have to work harder at keeping parents in the loop.