About us / About camedus

Welcome to Cameroon Educational System and  Schools,  one of Cameroon  largest school community that was designed and built to contain up to 900,000 or more  schools, over 1,000,000  or more students and over 50,000 or more employees. Camedus  serves a diverse student population from urban, suburban and rural communities in Cameroon.

Camedus is nationally recognised for its innovative programs and initiatives, including the expansion of Advanced technological approaches and partnerships with businesses and institutions of higher learning. It is our mission to advance the achievement of its diverse student body through community engagement, sound policy governance, accountability, and fiscal responsibility.

About Cameroon Educational System (CAMEDUS) 

Cameroon Educational System is a complete online resource that teachers, administrators and school staff can visit each day to find high-quality and in-depth original content about the Cameroon school system, the various schools and places where the schools are location. We update the site daily, offering:

  • Carefully curated news briefs on topics that matter to educators;
  • Lesson plans, printable, worksheets and thousands of other classroom-ready resources;
  • Camedus Tech tips and ideas as well as reviews of online chats/text and talk apps, websites and tech products; and
  • A huge library of professional development articles and columns.
  • Each of our school Administrators will have access to school resources where they can updates their school homepages on their own without involving Camedus Tech Team

The Cameroon Educational System team, including a network of skilled content providers, have maintained this online resource for educators since August 2015. In order to keep the site free, Cameroon Education World is funded by corporate sponsors like the schools administrator or PTA and advertisers. The site is also part of The Educator's Network, which simplifies educator-targeted media buying and offers efficient, optimized campaigns across multiple teacher sites via a single point of contact. 


 History of Cameroon Educational System (CAMEDUS)
Two separate systems of education were used in Cameroon after independence: East Cameroon’s system was based on the French model and West Cameroon’s on the British model. At the time, the architects of independence perceived the policy as a symbol of national integration between West and East Cameroon. The two systems were merged by 1976, but studies suggest the two systems still didn’t blend.

Shortly after the independence, French was considered the country’s main language, but the rise of English as first commercial language in the world, meant the balance switched to the latter. Christian mission schools have played an important part of the education system, most children cannot afford them and are forced to choose state-run schools. While the country has dedicated institutions to teacher training and technical education, the growing trend is for the wealthiest and best-educated students to leave the country to study and live abroad, creating a brain drain.

•    Legislation
The Constitution affirms “the State shall guarantee the child’s right to education. Primary education shall be compulsory”. The government has avoided the human rights language and has referred only to “equality of opportunity for access to education”. When six years of primary schooling are complete education is still compulsory until the age of 14. Primary school education is free (since 2000), but families must pay for uniforms, book fees, and sometimes even anti-malaria prophylaxis for pupils. Tuition and fees at the secondary school level are indeed very high and unfortunately remain unaffordable for many families

•    Statistics


General information


Expected years of schooling (on average)

10.3 yrs

Adult literacy rate (people aged 15 and more, both sexes)


Mean years of schooling (adults)

5.9 yrs

Education index


Combined gross enrollment in education (both sexes)


According to data available for 2011, 47.7 per cent of girls and 56.7 per cent of boys attended primary school. The low school enrolment rate was attributed to cost, with girls’ participation further reduced by early marriage, sexual harassment, unwanted pregnancy, domestic responsibilities, and certain socio-cultural biases. Domestic workers are generally not permitted by their employers to attend school.

A 2004 government study found there is a large gap between the capacity of the schools and the number of potential students. According to the study, preschools served only 16 per cent of the potential student population. Within the school system, the Northern provinces were the most underprivileged, with only 5.7 per cent of all teachers working in the Adamawa North, and Extreme North provinces combined. The study showed elementary schools only had enough seats for 1.8 million students, although 2.9 million attended school. 

These findings pushed the Cameroonian government to launch a three-year program to construct and renovate schools, improve teacher competency, and provide instructional materials, which was apparently renewed in 2010. However problems are still not to be considered resolved. Almost  half of the state primary schools are reporting problems with their buildings. Only 19 per cent of schools have working toilets, 30 per cent have access to a water tap and barely 30 per cent have enough tables and benches for students.

II.    Structure of the educational system
The educational system in Cameroon is divided into four stages; primary which is under the ministry of Basic Education (six years, compulsory), middle school (five years), secondary/high school which is under the ministry of secondary education (two years), and tertiary which also under the ministry of higher education (university). The academic year runs from September to June, at which time, end-of-year-examinations are always written. The General Certificate of Education (GCE), both Ordinary and Advanced levels, are the two most qualifying exams in the Anglophone part of Cameroon.

There are two separate secondary schooling systems, depending on whether the French or British colonial models apply. In broad terms though, the secondary phase comprises a lower (middle school) and an upper level (high school). For the majority of young people this distinction remains academic, because their parents are unable to afford secondary school fees at all. Students who graduate from a five-year secondary school program have to sit for the GCE Ordinary Level, and those who graduate from a two year high school program have to sit for the GCE Advanced Level.

So far, the GCE advanced level and the Baccalaureate (the French equivalent of academic attainment) are the two main entrance qualifications into institutions of higher learning. After secondary school, there is the possibility of undertaking “vocational studies” courses aimed at unemployed people under the responsibility of the Ministry of employment.



•    Grading scale
-    French grading scale


Grade description

 US Grade



 Trés bien (very good)




  Bien (good)




 Assez bien (quite good)




 Passable (satisfactory)




  Moyen (sufficient)




 Insuffisant (insufficient)


  Failure (May be considered a pass if entire year is passed

-    English grading scale


Grade description


US Grade


 First class




Second class

Upper division

 A- / B+


 Second class

  Lower division






III.    Primary and secondary education
In 2002, the gross primary enrolment rate was 108 per cent. Gross enrolment ratios are based on the number of students formally registered in primary school and do not necessarily reflect actual school attendance. In 2001, 84.6 per cent of children from 10 to 14-years-old were attending school. As of 2001, 64 per cent of children who started primary school were likely to reach grade 5.

Fewer girls enroll in primary school in Cameroon than boys, which is generally down to issues such as early marriage, unplanned pregnancy, domestic chores and socio-cultural biases also contributed to low education rates. In 2001, the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child identified a number of problems with the education system in Cameroon, including rural/urban and regional disparities in school attendance; limited access to formal and vocational education for children with disabilities; children falling behind in their primary education; a high dropout rate; lack of primary school teachers; and violence and sexual abuse against children in schools.

The adult literacy rate is 67.9 per cent. In the southern areas of the country almost all children of primary-school age are enrolled in classes. In the north however, which has always been the most isolated part of Cameroon, registration is low. Most students in Cameroon do not go beyond the primary grades. There has been an increasing trend of the smartest students leaving the country in recent years to study abroad and settling there: the so-called "brain drain".

In the Cameroon English-speaking education sub-system, pupils leaving primary school enter secondary school after passing the Government Common Entrance Examinations (and obtaining a First School Leaving Certificate) in Class 6 (now) or 7 (formerly). The last two years in secondary school, after GCE O Levels, are referred to as high school. A high school is part of the secondary school but in Cameroon, it is habitual to talk of secondary school for a school which ends at the O Levels and high school for one which offers the complete secondary education program of seven years (or one which simply has lower and upper sixth classes).

Female students now use social internet networks more for pedagogical reasons than the traditional thought of searching for boyfriends. The most used social internet networks included Facebook, Myspace, Hi-5, Aid forum and Comment camarche

IV.    Higher Education
Although Cameroon boasts a sprawling cache of junior academic institutions of excellence, higher institutions are rather insufficient. There are eight state-run universities in Buea, Bamenda, Douala, Yaounde I & II, Dschang, Maroua and Ngaoundere. There is a handful of thriving private universities such as the Bamenda University of Science and Technology (BUST), International University, Bamenda and the Fotso Victor University in the west province.

Originally The University of Buea was the only Anglo-Saxon style university, but with the University of Bamenda opening its doors in 2011 Cameroon now has two English Universities. The rest of Cameroon's six state-managed universities are run on the francophonie model, although in principle, they are considered to be bilingual institutions. Cameroon's universities are strictly managed by the central government, with the pro-chancellors and rectors appointed by presidential decree. The minister of higher education is the chancellor of all Cameroon's state universities.

Compared to neighbouring countries, Cameroon generally enjoys stable academic calendars. In all, Cameroon's higher education has been a success since independence, with thousands of its graduates mostly consumed by the national public service. The government is doing little or nothing to curb the ever increasing trend for hundreds of university graduates leaving the country for greener pastures, which has been a growing fashion since the 1990s, with economic crises playing a huge role. Nonetheless, an emerging number of private higher technical institutions of learning like the American Institute of Cameroon AIC, Nacho university, Fonab Polytechnic, and many others are beginning to reshape the predominantly general style of education that for over three decades has been the turf of most Anglophone students in Cameroon.

Universities in Cameroon include:
•    American Institute of Cameroon, Ndop
•    Bamenda University of Science & Technology
•    International University, Bamenda
•    University of Buea
•    University of Bamenda
•    University of Douala
•    University of Dschang
•    University of Ngaoundere
•    Universite des Montagnes (Highlands University)
•    University of Maroua
•    University of Bamenda
•    University Institute of the Diocese of Buea (two campuses)
•    University of Yaounde (two campuses)
•    Catholic University of Central Africa (Yaounde)
•    The International Relations Institute of Cameroon - IRIC (yaounde)
•    St. Thomas Aquinas Regional Major Seminary (Bambui)
•    Siantou and Ndi Samba Schools of Higher Learning (Yaounde)
•    Catholic University of Cameroon, Bamenda (Bamenda)

V.    Funding
Cameroon public expenditure on education in 2011, according to UNESCO, amounted at 3.7 per cent of GDP. About 85% of Cameroon primary, secondary and high schools are strongly funded and supported by the PTAs in those schools. 

VI.    Education Issues

 -     Teachers

Absenteeism of teachers is a reason generally considered to contribute to the poor level of education in the country. Teachers from both English and French sub-systems, for cultural and historical reasons, still operate as separate in the educational system, which prevents “teachers from developing a joint pedagogical repertoire about professional matters and to engage in productive debates around new discourses and repertoires such as ICTs in support of teaching,” even if as private individuals they “appear to be open to the challenges of modern Cameroon and multilingual communication in large urban centres.”

-    Textbook review

In 1995, the National Forum on Education strongly recommended “the insertion of local knowledge and practices in the school curriculum to make the education system more relevant to the learners.” Thus the Institute of Rural Applied Pedagogy (IRAP) put into place adapted programs and an integrated training that combined general knowledge with work practices (agriculture, animal husbandry, poultry, brick laying, carpentry, etc)

However, the system was not perfectly balanced: traditional subjects (Mathematics, Science, French language) were adequately developed, whereas the new subjects were not studied to adapt to the different situations or considered other needs (in rural zones, children are forced to leave school because they are needed to provide enough means of support to their family). That being said the project was not a complete failure: some of the initiatives were, in fact, interesting and proved that the approach was somewhat correct, but had to be more precisely studied – possibly by integrating teachers’ and students’ experiences, outside schools. 

-    Languages

Despite the two deeply divided sub systems being merged for more than 40 years, a major issue is the differences of approach in teachers, which affects the possibilities of reforming the system in a more competitive and efficient way. Another problem is the complete lack of a programs to integrate local languages in the educational system. Main reasons are the lack of government support to the proposal and the factual impracticability of some of the proposals. Since there are more than 270 local languages in Cameroon, picking at random a language to be taught in all country “would generate political feelings of superiority that may endanger national unity.”

There are some programs (both public and private) to teach those local languages at school and in other facilities, but they carry mixed feelings.  While they are spoken the most in the ordinary lives of Cameroonians there is still a “social stigma” towards those who cannot speak anything but their own languages. On the contrary, being proficient in English or French is something to be proud of (especially teachers are likely to “show off”), but still pupils are not stimulated in using them at home, because of the low literacy level of their families.

-    Education of students with special needs

In 2010, the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child stated “it’s deeply concerned at the persistence of de facto discrimination among children in the enjoyment of their rights. It is especially concerned that girls, indigenous children, children with disabilities, refugee children, children from poor rural areas, and children in street situations suffer particular disadvantages with regard to education, access to health and social services.

VII.    Educational Programme in Rural Areas
Local Partner: Coalition for Education and Health – CEST International
Year: 2010

•    Background
In Cameroon, 46 per cent of kids drop out after primary school and only a meagre one per cent continue all the way to university. The country has a very high poverty level which, as in most of Africa, is concentrated in the rural areas. Here, illiteracy affects almost 90 per cent of the population. Les Hauts-Plateaux is an area comprised mostly of farmers who have little land and few technical skills.  Logone and Chari are among the poorest regions in the country.  Both zones are characterised by their inadequate education system, including a serious lack of qualified teachers, equipment and supplies. A primary school education ends with many students still unable to read, write and do the most elementary mathematical calculations in a satisfactory manner.
•    Implementation
As a first step towards improving the quality of education for nearly 1,000 children in the selected areas, 275 teachers in ten different schools received professional training needed to effect change. Pedagogy manuals were created based on the training workshops and distributed to an additional 1,000 educators.  A school book distribution plan was put in place, resulting in 1,185 books distributed to schools for the benefit of more than 600 children and future generations of students. Scholarships for a full academic year were awarded to 100 students in need.
•     Improved Quality of Education 
“The project took place during an important moment for the country’s education system”, says Dr. Gilbert Mboubou, Principal of Moyopo, a bilingual academic institute in Bafoussam (West Cameroon) and author of the pedagogical method used for the teachers’ training and the manual.  ”Recently, the Ministry of Education began reforming the teaching system to improve its quality and take measures against the high level of drop-outs. In practice, though, reforms are difficult due to the scarce economic resources available.Thanks to the Harambee-funded program, we were able to reach out to 275 teachers, provide them with qualified training and impress upon them the importance of their role in building a better future for young generations”.  For teachers, what truly made them commit is the fact that the pedagogical system they were taught through the programme’s workshop was developed by one of their own, a reputable African professor who could understand their pressing needs.  ”As a result”, continues Mboubou, ”we have more aware and energized teachers who love their work and are eager to make a difference. That, in turn, has a positive effect on students’ enthusiasm and achievement”.
•     Motivated Teachers Sharing Expertise With Colleagues
The programmes beneficiaries have acquired fundamental tools needed to continue the journey autonomously. One of Africans’ major strengths lies in their sense of community, which makes them share what they learn with others. The practical impact of this cultural trait is seen in the ripple effect produced by the programme’s teacher training. The workshop’s participants are now passing the acquired knowledge along to their colleagues who couldn’t attend, with every participant sharing material and insights with at least 3 other teachers. The reach of the initial training program is then magnified to benefit a much larger community of educators and children.
•     Textbooks Available To All Children
More than 600 children now have access to textbooks, something that they were missing before and was hampering their learning progress heavily. The books will become part of the schools’ libraries so that future generations of students will be able to take advantage of the material supplied by Harambee.



Profile of education System:

  1. Primary/Elementary education:
    Length of Study: 6 years ;
    Certification: FSLC


  1. Secondary education:
    Length of Study: 5 years; 
    Certification: GCE O/L


  1. High School:
    Length of Study: 2 years; 
    Certification: GCE A/L


  1. University - Bachelors
    Length of Study: 3 years;
    BSc and BA


  1. University - Masters
    Length of Study: 2 - 3 years; 
    MSc and MA


  1. University - Doctorate:
    Length of Study: 4 - 5 years; 

The Cameroon Primary/Elementary  Education .

The Cameroon British anglophone system comprises of a seven years of  primary education consisting of Class one (1) through Class seven (7) of primary elementary education.

At the end of Class six (6), the  pupils sit for the First School Leaving Certificate examination (FSLC) which certifies them as haven finished the primary or elementary education of Cameroon.

For students wishing to enroll in secondary school education they are expected to sit for the Government Common Entrance Exams. The results of this exam is divided into a List A and a List B. Top students are place in List A and enjoy preferential treatment as to the schools they get admitted into.

The Cameroon   Secondary Education

In Cameroon secondary school, the Student are then grilled for five (5) years of secondary education which consists of Form One (1) to Form Five (5). 

The curriculum of study comprise all subjects from Home Economics, Geography, Chemistry, Biology, History, Mathematics, Further Mathematics, Human Biology, Commerce, Religion, English, Literature, Home Economics or Food or Nutrition to physics and everything in between. 

By the end of Form 3 students are expected to select between an Arts or Science course of study. So studies between Forms 4 and 5 are more specialized and geared towards the final exams. 

At the end of Form 5 the students sits for the  General Certificate of Education Ordinary Level, (Cameroon GCE O/L)

The Cameroon GCE O/L consists of a broad selection of over 25 subjects examined during the course of two weeks. 

The student can select a maximum of eleven subject to sit from a Science based list or an Arts based list. 

Hence, Cameroon students often describe themselves as science or Arts students in Cameroon schools.

The result is graded as A, B, C D, E and F grades with A being the best grade possible.

Successful students are those with a passed grade (A, B or C) in four or more subjects. 


The  Cameroon  High School Education

In Cameroon High School Education, the students then seek for competitive admission into the very few good fee-free government high schools. These schools attract the best of the student and with limited classrooms sizes admit only a very few percentage of the secondary school graduates. 

The wealthy and more affluent families send their children to the private mission run schools. These mission schools are very expensive by Cameroon standards costing between a thousand to two thousand dollars a year for tuition, room and Board. With large family sizes in Cameroon and high unemployment rate only a very few well-off families can afford that sum of money per child per academic year.

A third option for the students aside from the government schools and mission-run schools are the vast private schools run by individuals on a for-profit basis.

These private schools range widely in reputation. Majorities are poorly run and educational standards are very poor. Student performance at the GCE is very poor for these schools. Even when these schools achieve a level of disciple and student success rate, the owners are driven by greed to maximize profit resulting in reduction of student output and performance. 

While these private schools are not cheap either, they have schemes in place to work flexibly with parents to ensure the completion of a child's education.

Thus for the underachieving students from a poor family the only option will be the private school system. 

With a collection of such student  making up the bulk of a private education section the study environment is less competitive, less challenging, and this is reflect in the schools performance at the GCE exams.

The high education system of Cameroon is a two year course of specialized study based upon the student decision at the secondary education level meaning that if a student decided to be an Arts student and has decided to study most arts subjects like English, Literature, History, Commerce, History, and Geography, they will sit for the GCE O/L Arts exam that will determine their fate  going forward after their performance in the exams. In high school they could not get admitted into a science course of study. 

The high school classes are subdivided into series between the arts and science subjects passed in the G.C.E exams. The series include A1,A2,A3,A4 for the arts students and S1,S2,S3,S4 for the science students.

Upon completion of the two years the student sits for the Cameroon General Certificate of Education Advanced level, (GCE A/L). The maximum number of subjects a student can sit for is five (5) on either Arts or Science list.

The student's performance is graded on a letter system as A, B, C, D, E and F.  A point system is often used by the University of Buea to sort the students and admit the best into the University.

On the point system F is given zero (0) points, E is given one point , D is given 2, C is given 3 , B is given 4, and A gets 5 points. 

Thus a student can get the maximum of 25 points by sitting for the maximum subjects (5) and getting all As to make 5x5 = 25.

It is very uncommon for a student to get 25 points. Each year, of the thousands of students only a handful i.e less than 10 get over 20 points. These are certain of admission in any university and department they apply to in Cameroon and abroad.

The Cameroon GCE exams is highly regarded in the world. Top graduates go on to do exceptionally well in many university around the world including US Ivy league schools.




Cameroon - Secondary Education

In the French-speaking parts of Cameroon in 2000, students generally attended secondary schools between the ages of twelve and nineteen. Four years were spent at the lower-secondary level and three at the upper-secondary level, with the Brevet d'Etudes du premier Cycle awarded to students graduating after the four grades of General Secondary school in the Francophone system (Collège d'Enseignement general or secondaire) and the Baccalauréat awarded to successful completers of the last three years of secondary level (Lycées). In English-speaking secondary schools in the year 2000, students also usually attended education programs between the ages of twelve and nineteen, although typically the lower-secondary level entailed five years of study for 12- to 17-year-olds, culminated in the Cameroon GCE O Level, and was followed by a two-year, upper-secondary program for 17- to 19-year-olds, awarded the GCE A Level upon completion of their studies.

In both the Anglophone and the Francophone systems, technical secondary schools also exist where students can obtain an alternative education to the general, academically oriented course of studies described above. The technical programs also are normally seven years in length for students between the ages of twelve and nineteen. In the Anglophone system, Technical Secondary Schools lead to the end degree of City and Guilds Part III, which allows the graduate to go on to university or higher-level technical studies. In the French-speaking system, Lycées techniques (technical high schools) take the student through technical-training courses and qualify her or him for work or further study upon completion; the Brevet de Technicien and the Baccalauréat are the diplomas awarded, qualifying students to pursue careers or to study further at a higher-education institution. A government-sponsored conference held in April 1999, the National Forum on Technical and Vocational Secondary Education in Cameroon, followed up on the National Forum on Education of May 1995 by developing new thinking in how to modify technical and vocational training to better prepare students to meet the labor market's needs.

Gross enrollment ratios at the secondary level in 1994 were 32 percent for boys and 22 percent for girls, or 27 percent for secondary students as a whole. The net enrollment rate for secondary students was 22 percent. The failure rate at the secondary level in 1994 also was 22 percent. Twenty-four percent of secondary-level students in Cameroon dropped out of school that year.


Cameroon - History & Background, Constitutional & Legal Foundations, Educational System—overview, Preprimary & Primary Education, Secondary Education


Official Country Name:     Republic of Cameroon

Region:          Africa

Population:  15,421,937

Language(s):            African language groups, English, French

Literacy Rate:          63.4%

Academic Year:       September-June

Number of Primary Schools:      8,514

Compulsory Schooling:    6 years

Educational Enrollment:   Primary: 1,921,186

            Secondary: 459,068

            Higher: 33,177

Educational Enrollment Rate:     Primary: 88%

            Secondary: 27%

Teachers:      Primary: 39,384

            Secondary: 14,917

            Higher: 1,086

Student-Teacher Ratio:    Primary: 49:1

            Secondary: 31:1

Female Enrollment Rate:  Primary: 84%

            Secondary: 22%

Additional Topics


Cameroon - History Background

The Republic of Cameroon (République de Cameroun) is a unitary, constitutional democracy located in western Central Africa. Bordered by the Atlantic Ocean's Bight (bay) of Biafra to the southwest, Lake Chad to the northwest, Nigeria and Chad to the northeast, the Central African Republic to the east, and Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and Congo (Brazzaville) to the south, Cameroon measure…


Cameroon - Constitutional Legal Foundations

Cameroon is a republic with a strong presidency largely directing Cameroonian civil and political life. The country's current Constitution was approved by referendum on May 20, 1972, and adopted June 2 of that year. The Cameroonian legal system is a civil law system based on the French system of justice, with some influence from the common law system of the British. All Cameroonians, women …


Cameroon - Educational System—overview

In 1999, approximately 81 percent of adult men fifteen years of age or older were estimated to be literate, as were almost 69 percent of adult women. This represented a significant improvement over conditions in 1995, when only about 63 percent of the Cameroonian population was estimated to be literate—approximately 75 percent of adult men and a little more than 52 percent women, based on U…


Cameroon - Preprimary Primary Education

Participation rates declined dramatically in preprimary, primary, and secondary education programs in the second half of the 1980s and throughout the 1990s, with somewhat erratic ups and downs in school attendance from one year to the next. In his 1996 critique of schooling and democratic development (or lack of development) in Africa, Ambroise Kom wrote that descolarisation (de-schooling) had rap…


Cameroon - Secondary Education

In the French-speaking parts of Cameroon in 2000, students generally attended secondary schools between the ages of twelve and nineteen. Four years were spent at the lower-secondary level and three at the upper-secondary level, with the Brevet d'Etudes du premier Cycle awarded to students graduating after the four grades of General Secondary school in the Francophone system (Collège …


Cameroon - Higher Education

In 1995 the gross enrollment rate for higher education in Cameroon was only 4 percent, with significant gender disparities: 7 percent of males and only 1 percent of females of higher-education age were enrolled in tertiary-level education and training programs. By 1998 enrollments had increased and were almost equivalent to what they had been before the higher education budget was trimmed in 1993


Cameroon - Administration, Finance, Educational Research

The Ministry of Basic, secondary and tertiary Education has primary responsibility for overseeing the implementation of educational laws, decrees, and policy in Cameroon's primary and secondary schools and for developing administrative regulations pertaining to basic education. The Ministry of Higher Education is responsible for developing and monitoring training and educational programs.

Cameroon – Non formal Education

Cameroon lacked a well-developed system of adult education in the late 1990s. Nonetheless, at that time recommendations were being made to develop new educational opportunities for adults seeking to upgrade their skills, learn a new trade, or change jobs. Because computer training was seen as absolutely necessary to increase the marketability of graduates of training and education programs by the government.